Hygiene is the science and practice of preserving health and is one of the most important subjects for all persons.
personal hygiene
personal hygiene
Personal hygiene: Germs or bacteria are to be found in and on the body and can be transferred onto anything with which the body comes in contact. For this reason, personal cleanliness is essential to prevent germs getting onto food. Self-respect is necessary for every food-handler because a pride in one’s appearance promotes a high standard of cleanliness and physical fitness. Persons suffering from ill-health or who are not clean about themselves should not handle food.
poor hygiene
poor personal hygiene behaviors
Risk Factors

Bathing: It is essential to take a bath or a shower every day (or at least two or three times a week), otherwise germs can be transferred onto clothes and so onto food, particularly in warm weather.

Hands: Hands must be washed thoroughly and frequently, particularly after using the toilet, before commencing work and during the handling of food. They should be washed in hot water, with the aid of a nail brush and bactericidal soap. This can be dispensed from a fixed container, in liquid or gel form, and is preferable to bar soap, which can accumulate germs when passed from hand to hand. After washing, hands should be rinsed and dried on a clean towel, suitable paper towel or by hot-air drier. Hands and fingernails can be a great source of danger if not kept clean, as they can so easily transfer harmful to food.

Rings (except for a plain wedding band), watches and jewelry should not be worn where food is handled. Particles of food may be caught under the ring, and germs could multiply there until they are transferred onto food.

Watches should not be worn because some foodstuffs have to be plunged into plenty of water. In any case, the steam in a kitchen is likely to ruin watches that are not waterproofed.
Jewelry, in general, should not be worn since it may fall off into food, unbeknown to the wearer; small sleepers for pierced ears are, however, permissible.

hand jewelry
minimal jewelry
Fingernails: These should always be kept clean and short as dirt can easily lodge under the nails and be dislodged when, for example, making the pastry, so introducing bacteria into food. Nails should be cleaned with a nail brush; nail varnish should not be worn.
fake fingernails
fingernails hygiene
Hair: Hair should be washed regularly and kept covered where food is being handled. Hair that is not cared for is likely to come out or shed dandruff, which may fall into food. Men’s hair should be kept short as it is easier to keep clean; it also looks neater. Women’s hair should be covered as much as possible. Both men’s and women’s hair can be kept in place using a hair net. The hair should never be scratched, combed or touched in the kitchen, as germs could be transferred via the hands to the food.
hair hygiene
Hair hygiene
Nose: The nose should not be touched when food is being handled. If a handkerchief is used, the hands should be washed afterward. Ideally, paper handkerchief should be used and then destroyed, and the hands washed afterward. The nose is an area where there are vast numbers of harmful bacteria; it is therefore very important that neither food, people nor working surfaces are sneezed over, so spreading germs.

Mouth: There are many germs in the area of the mouth, therefore the mouth or lips should be touched by the hands or utensils that may come into contact with food. No cooking utensils should be used for tasting the food, nor should fingers be used for this purpose as germs may be transferred to the food. A clean teaspoon should be used for tasting and washed well afterward.

Coughing over foods and working areas should be avoided as germs are spread long distances if not trapped in a handkerchief.

Ears: The ear cavities should not be touched while in the kitchen as, again, germs can be transferred.

Teeth: Sound teeth are essential to good health. They should be kept clean, and visits to the dentist should be regular so that teeth can be kept in good repair.

Feet: As food handlers are standing for many hours, care of the feet is important. They should be washed regularly, and the toenails kept short and clean. Tired feet can cause general fatigue, which leads to carelessness, and this results in a lowering of the standard of hygiene.

Cuts, burns, and sores: It is particularly important to keep all cuts, burns, scratches and similar openings of the skin covered with a waterproof dressing. Where the skin is septic (as with certain cuts, spots, sores, and carbuncles) there are vast numbers of harmful bacteria that must not be permitted to get onto food; in most cases, people suffering in this way should not handle food. 
covered wound
wound hygiene

personal hygiene
personal habit checklists
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