Type of vegetables and their uses

Fresh vegetables are important foods, both from an economic and nutritional point of view. On average, each person consumes 125-150 kg per year of vegetables.

types of vegetables
Various vegetables
The purchasing of these commodities is difficult because the products are highly perishable, and supply and demand varies. The high perish-ability of fresh vegetable causes problems not encountered in other markets. Fresh vegetables are living organisms and will lose quality quickly if not properly stored and handled.

Here are some of the type of vegetables and some of their uses:

Types of vegetables
Alfalfa sprout
Types of vegetables
Allium food
Types of vegetables
Bell pepper
Types of vegetables
Dark green vegetables
Types of vegetables
Eggplant

Roots
Beetroot – two main types, round and long; used for soups, salads and as a vegetable.

Types of vegetables
Beetroot
Carrots – grown in numerous varieties and sizes; used extensively for soups, sauces, stocks, stews, salads and as a vegetable.

Types of vegetables
Carrots

Celeriac – large, light-brown, celery-flavored root, used in soups salads and as a vegetable.
Horseradish – long, light-brown, narrow root, grated and used for horseradish sauce.
Mooli – long, white, thick member of radish family, used for soups, salads or as a vegetable.
Parsnips – long, white root, tapering to a point; unique nut-like flavor; used in soups, added to casseroles and as a vegetable (roasted, puree, etc.).
Radishes – small summer variety, round or oval, served with dips, in salads or as a vegetable in white or cheese sauce.
Salsify – also called oyster plant because of similarity of taste; long narrow root used in soups, salads and as a vegetable.
Scorzonera – long, narrow root, slightly astringent in flavor; used in soups, salads and as a vegetable.
Swede – large root with yellow flesh; generally used as a vegetable, mashed or parboiled and roasted; may be added to stews.
Turnip – two main varieties, long and round; used in soups, stews and as a vegetable.

Tubers
Artichokes, Jerusalem – potato-like tuber with a bitter-sweet flavor used in soups, salads and as a vegetable.
Potatoes – many varieties are grown but all potatoes should be sold by name (King Edward, Desiree, Maris Piper); this is important as the caterer needs to know which varieties are best suited for specific cooking purposes. The various varieties fall into four categories: floury, firm, waxy or salad potatoes. Jersey Royals are specifically grown highly regarded new potatoes. Purple Congo is a blue potato. Truffle de Chine is a deep-purple potato grown in France. Turo/Eddo are two basic varieties found in tropical areas. A large barrel-shaped tuber and a smaller variety, which is often called eddo of dasheen. They are all a dark mahogany-brown with a shaggy skin, looking like a cross between beetroot and a Swede.
Sweet potatoes – long tubers with purple or sand-colored skins and orange flesh; flavor is sweet and aromatic; used as a vegetable (fried, pureed, creamed, candied) or made into a sweet pudding.

Types of vegetables
Sweet potato

Yams – similar to sweet potatoes, usually cylindrical, often knobbly in shape: can be in the same way as sweet potatoes.

Bulbs
Fennel – the bulb is the swollen leaf base and has a pronounced flavor. Used raw in salads and cooked.
Garlic – an onion-like bulb with a papery skin inside of which are small individually wrapped cloves; used extensively in many forms of cookery; garlic has a pungent distinctive flavor and should be used sparingly.
Leeks – summer leeks have long white stems, bright green leaves, and a milder flavor than winter leeks; these have a stockier stem and a stronger flavor; used extensively in stocks, soups, sauces, stews, and as a vegetable.
Onions – there are numerous varieties with different-colored skins and varying strength; after salt, the onion is probably the most frequently used flavoring in cookery; can be used in almost every type of food except sweet dishes.
Shallots – have a similar but more refined flavor than the onion and are therefore more often used in top-class cookery.
Spring onions – are slim and tiny, like miniature leeks; used in soups salads and Chinese and Japanese cookery. Ramp looks like a spring onion but is stronger.

Leafy
Chicory – a lettuce coarse, crisp leaves and a sharp bitter taste in the outside leaves; inner leaves are milder.
Chinese leaves – long white, densely packed leaves with a mild flavor resembling braised or stir-fried as a vegetable.
Corn salad – sometimes called lamb’s lettuce; small tender, dark leaves with a tangy nutty taste.
Cress – there are 15 varieties of cress with different flavors, suitable for a large range of foods.
Culaboo are leaves of the tero plant, poisonous if eaten raw, but widely used in Asian and Caribbean cookery.
Lettuce – many varieties including cabbage, cos, little gem, iceberg, oakleaf, Webb’s; used chiefly for salads, or used as a wrapping for other foods, e.g. fish fillets.
Mustard and cress – embryonic leaves of mustard and garden cress with sharp warm flavor; used mainly in or as a garnish to sandwiches and salads.
Nettles – once cooked the sting disappears; should be picked young, used in soups.
Radicchio – round, deep-red variety of chicory with white ribs and a distinctive bitter taste.
Red salanova – a neat, tasty lettuce; very suitable for garnish.
Rocket – a type of cress with larger leaves and a peppery taste.
Sorrel – bright-green sour leaves, which can be overpowering if used on their own; best when tender and young; used in salad and soups.
Spinach – tender dark-green leaves with a mild musky flavor; used for soups, garnished egg and fish dishes, as a vegetable and raw in salads.
Swiss chard – has large, ribbed, slightly curly leaves with a flavor similar to but milder than spinach; used as for spinach.
Vine leaves – all leaves from grape vines can be eaten when young.
Watercress – long stems with round, dark, tender green leaves and a pungent peppery flavor; used for soups, salads, and for garnishing roasts and grills of meat and poultry.

Brassicas
Broccoflower – a cross between broccoli and cauliflower. Chinese broccoli is a leafy vegetable with slender heads of flowers.
Broccoli – various types including calabrese white, green, purple sprouting; delicate vegetable with a gentle flavor used in soups, salads, stir-fry dishes, and cooked and served in many ways as a vegetable.
Brussels sprouts – small green buds growing on thick stems; can be used for soup but are mainly used as a vegetable, can be cooked and served in a variety of ways.
Cabbage – three main types including green, white and red; many varieties of green cabbage available at different seasons of the year; early green cabbage is deep green and loosely formed; later in the season they firm up, with solid hearts; Savoy is considered the best of the wintergreen cabbage; white cabbage is used for coleslaw; green of the wintergreen and red as a vegetable, boiled, braised or stir-fried.
Cauliflower – heads of creamy-white florets with a distinctive flavor; used for soup, and cooked and served in various ways as a vegetable.
Chinese mustard greens – deep green and mustard flavored.
Kale and curly kale – thick green leaves. The curly variety is the most popular.
Pak choi – Chinese cabbage with many varieties.
Romanesque – pretty or white cross between broccoli and cauliflower.

Pods and seeds
Broad beans – pale-green, oval-shaped beans contained in a thick fleshly pod; young broad beans can be removed from the pods, cooked in their shells and served as a vegetable in various ways; old broad beans will toughen and, when removed from the pods, will have to be shelled before being served.
Butter or lima beans – butter beans are white, large, flattish and oval-shaped; lima beans are smaller; both are used as a vegetable or salad stew or casserole ingredient.
Mangetout – also called snow peas or sugar peas; flat pea pod with immature seeds that, after topping, tailing and stringing may be eaten in their entirety; used as a vegetable, in salads, and for stir-fry dishes.
Okra – curved and pointed seed pods with a flavor similar to aubergines; cooked as a vegetable or in creole-type stews.
Peas – garden peas are normal size, petits pois are a dwarf variety; marrowfat peas are dried; popular as a vegetable, peas are also used for soups, salads, stews, and stir-fry dishes.
Runner beans – a popular vegetable that must be used where young bright-green color and pliable velvety feel; if coarse, wilted or older beans are used they will be stingy and tough.
Sweetcorn – also known as maize or Sudan corn; available “on the bob” fresh or frozen or in kernels, canned or frozen; a versatile commodity and used as a first course, in soups, salads, casseroles and as a vegetable.

Stems and shoots
Asparagus – the three main types are white, with creamy white stems and a mild flavor; French, with violet or bluish tips and a stronger more astringent flavor; and green, with what is considered a delicious aromatic flavor; used on every course of the menu, except the sweet course.

Types of vegetables
Asparagus
Bean sprouts – slender young sprouts of the germinating soya or mung bean, used as a vegetable accompaniment, in stir-fry dishes and salads.
Cardoon – longish plant with root and fleshy ribbed stalk similar to celery, but leaves are grey-green in color; used cooked as a vegetable or raw in salads.
Celery – long-stemmed bundles of fleshly, ribbed stalks, white to light green in color; used in soups, stocks, sauces, cooked as a vegetable and raw in salads and dips.
Chicory – also known as Belgian endive; conical heads of crisp white, faintly bitter leaves used cooked as a vegetable and raw in salads and dips.
Fallow wax beans – similar of French beans.
Fiddlecoke fern – also called ostrich fern; 5cm long, a bit like asparagus and used in oriental dishes.
Globe artichokes – resemble fat pine cones with overlapping fleshy, green, inedible leaves, all connected to an edible fleshy base or bottom; used as a first course, hot or cold; as a vegetable, boiled, stuffed, baked, fried or in casseroles.
Kohlrabi – a stem that swells to turnip shape above the ground; those about the size of a large egg are best for cookery purposes (other than soup or purees); may be cooked as a vegetable, stuffed and baked and added to stews and casseroles.
Palm hearts – the buds of cabbage palm trees.
Samphire – the two types are marsh samphire, which grows in estuaries and salt marshes, and white rock samphire (sometimes called sea fennel), which grows on rocky shores. Marsh samphire is also known as glasswort and sometimes sea asparagus.
Sea kale – delicate white leaves with yellow frills edged with purpled; can be boiled or braised, or served raw like celery.
Thai beans – similar to French beans.
Water chestnuts – a common name for a number of aquatic herbs and their nut-like fruit; the best-known type is the Chinese water chestnut, sometimes known as the Chinese sedge.  
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