Dehydration and water intoxication

Water

Dehydration is due to a loss of water. The solute concentration in extracellular fluid increases-that is, tissue fluid becomes hypertonic to cells, and water leaves the cells.

Common causes of dehydration are excessive sweating, perhaps during exercise, without any replacement of the water lost. Dehydration can also be a side effect of any illness that causes prolonged vomiting or diarrhea.

The signs of moderate dehydration are a dry mouth, sunken eyes, and skin that will not bounce back after light pinching. If dehydration becomes severe, the pulse and breathing rate are rapid, the hands and feet are cold, and the lips are blue. Although dehydration leads to weight loss, it is never a good idea to dehydrate on purpose for this reason.

To cure dehydration, intake of low-sodium solution is needed because water intake alone could lead to water intoxication. Find more info at webmd

Water intoxication is due to a gain in water. The solute concentration in extracellular fluid decreases--that is, tissue fluid becomes hypotonic to the cells, and water enters the cells. Water intoxication is not nearly as common in adults as is dehydration.

Once cause can be the intake of too much water during a marathon race. Marathoners who collapse and have nausea and vomiting after a race are probably not suffering from a heart attack, but they may be suffering from water intoxication, which can lead to pulmonary edema and swelling in the brain.

The cure, an intravenous solution containing high amount of sodium, is the opposite of that for dehydration. Therefore, it is important that physicians be able to diagnose water intoxication in athletes have had an opportunity to drink fluids for the past several hours. More go to webmd

How much water is needed per day?

You have probably heard that you should be drinking eight 8 ounce glasses of water per day. This isn’t necessarily accurate but is at least an easy thing to remember and to have as a base amount. The Institute of Medicine determined that an adequate intake (AI) for men is roughly 3 liters (about 13 cups) of fluids per day. The AI for women is 2.2 liters (about 9 cups) of fluids per day.

Every day you lose water from breathing, perspiring, urinating and bowel movements. For your body to function properly it’s important to replenish this water supply. If you spend time in hot or dry weather, exercise or consume a significant amount of caffeinated drinks you may need more water!


Consuming an appropriate amount of water will aid your heart in pumping blood and deliver essential nutrients to your cells more efficiently. It also helps to transport oxygen in your blood.

Boosting your muscles and preventing cramps is also a helpful trait of water. This can be a fairly significant property if you find yourself always feeling tired while working out. You should be chugging back a couple cups of H₂O around two hours before you exercise. Water will reduce fatigue during exercise and and activities in addition to helping you keep more alert and awake. If you tend to work often and for long hours this can be one of the single best things you can do to keep in check.
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