Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Everything You Need to Know!

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. It’s also one of the most preventable diseases. As many as 24 million adults have impaired lung function, indicating an under-diagnosis of COPD, reports the American Lung Association. The US COPD Coalition reports Tennessee is one of the states experiencing high death rates from COPD.

COPD is a term used to describe several progressive lung diseases. Although emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the most common forms of COPD, other lung diseases include refractory asthma and severe bronchiectasis. COPD causes airflow blockage and breathing-related problems.

“COPD claims the lives of more than 120,000 Americans every year,” said Dr. James Shamiyeh, a UT Medical Center pulmonologist. “Smoking is the primary risk factor for COPD, but several other environmental and hereditary factors also can put someone at risk. There are so many people out there who don’t even realize they suffer from COPD and aren’t being treated for it. I’d strongly encourage everyone to take advantage of lung function screenings.”


COPD Risks


Smoking is the leading cause of COPD. The more a person smokes, the more likely they will develop COPD, although some people smoke for years and never get it. A smoker is three times more likely to have COPD than a non-smoker. Up to 20 percent of long-term smokers will develop COPD. Quitting smoking is the best way to prevent COPD. If you already have been diagnosed, stop smoking immediately and it may slow down the disease’s progression.

Other risk factors for COPD are exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace, heavy amounts of secondhand smoke and pollution, and frequent use of cooking gas without proper ventilation.


COPD Symptoms


Although there is no cure for COPD, early detection is important so you receive proper treatment that can slow the progression of the disease as well as treat many of the symptoms. The severity of symptoms is based on how much damage there has been to the lungs. The primary symptom of COPD is difficulty breathing due to airway obstruction. Other symptoms include:
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea) that gets worse with mild activity
  • Wheezing
  • Decreased exercise tolerance
  • Coughing with or without phlegm
  • Chest tightness

COPD Treatment Options


Treatment begins with a thorough evaluation from your doctor. He may order a chest X-ray, chest CT Scan, blood samples, pulmonary function testing, or any combination of these. Your doctor also will tell you to stop smoking immediately.

COPD treatments relieve symptoms, slow disease progression, improve overall health and quality of life, prevent and treat complications, and improve activity levels. COPD patients may need inhalers to dilate the airways. Oral medication may be used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing by relaxing and opening the air passages. Respiratory infections should be treated with antibiotics, and some patients may require supplemental oxygen.
Lastly, pulmonary rehabilitation can be beneficial to almost anyone with lung problems. Rehabilitation includes exercise training, and education or counseling. The rehabilitation team teaches how to cope with lung problems and deal with fears about the future. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a safe, effective way to help the participant feel better faster, become stronger, reduce stress and improve the overall quality of life.

What to Expect at Your Doctor’s Office


Your health care provider will take a detailed medical history and perform a physical examination. You may be asked the following medical history questions:
  • Do you notice shortness of breath?
  • Do you make grunting sounds while breathing?
  • Do you have to work hard to breathe?
  • How long have you had breathing difficulty?
  • Did it slowly progress over weeks to months?
  • Did it begin recently?
  • Did it begin suddenly?
  • Did it come on slowly?
  • Is there a sequence of separate occurrences? How long does each last, and does each episode have a similar pattern?
  • Has the breathing difficulty worsened recently?
  • Does breathing difficulty cause you to wake up at night?
  • Does the amount of breathing difficulty change over time?
  • Does breathing difficulty occur at rest?
  • How long does each episode last?
  • Is it worse when you lie flat?
  • Is it worse when you change body position?
  • Did it develop within 4 to 6 hours after exposure to something that you are or may be allergic to?
  • Is it worse after exercise?
  • Does shortness of breath occur only when you are wheezing?
  • Is your breathing pattern irregular?
  • Do you draw back the chest muscles with breathing?

What other symptoms do you have?


The physical examination will include a thorough check of your lungs, heart, and upper airway passages. Tests that may be performed include the following:
  • Blood tests (may include arterial blood gases)
  • Measurement of blood oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry)
  • ECG
  • X-ray of the chest
  • Pulmonary function tests
  • Exercise testing
  • CT scan of the chest
  • Echocardiogram
In severe cases of difficulty breathing, hospitalization may be required. Different medications aimed at treating the cause of breathing difficulty may be used. If your blood oxygen level is very low, you may need to receive oxygen. High doses of supplemental oxygen may be hazardous for some patients, however. Oxygen is not necessary in all cases of shortness of breath.

Create a Friendlier Environment


Aside from professional treatment, there are things you can do in your environment and lifestyle that may help control some of your COPD symptoms.
  • Keep smoke and fumes out of your home and work environments.
  • Cook near an open window.
  • Wear loose clothing.
  • If your home must be painted or sprayed for bugs, do it when you can be away.
  • Keep windows closed when there is a lot of pollution or dust outside, including when riding in a car.
  • Climb stairs only when necessary.
  • If heating with wood or kerosene, keep a door or window open.
  • Ask for help when needed.

What to eat for better breathing health


While eating right might not exactly get rid of COPD, it will help to improve symptoms of the disease and may even contribute to better treatment outcomes. Some tips to consider are:
Maintain a healthy weight: If you are underweight, whether before contracting COPD or even as a result of the symptoms, you could feel much worse and your risk of contracting other infections is higher. You may also feel weaker because having COPD means you need extra energy for breathing.

You might, therefore, need to up your calorie intake to cater for your increased needs. Indulge in nutritious high-calorie snacks like fruit salads with yogurt, avocado and egg sandwiches and nuts. On the other hand, being overweight or obese with COPD will also worsen your symptoms. This is because having extra weight places more demand on your heart and lungs, making breathing more difficult. Work on a healthy way to lose the extra kilos and watch yourself start to feel better.

Limit salt intake: Too much salt causes fluid retention in the body which increases breathlessness. Eating foods rich in potassium like bananas and oranges helps to balance out fluid retention.

Eat a variety of foods: Eating a variety of foods can help you achieve a balanced diet and nourish you with the essential nutrients needed for a healthy body. Include all food groups by using guides such as the food pyramid and the plating model.

Early recognition and treatment are keys to slowing down the progress of COPD. If you smoke, stop now. If you suspect you have COPD symptoms, call your doctor.
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